史上最全最强SpringMVC详细示例实战教程

作者: 疯狂小兵 | 2016-01-12 | 阅读
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一、SpringMVC基础入门,创建一个HelloWorld程序

1.首先,导入SpringMVC需要的jar包:

SpringMVC需要的jar包

2.添加Web.xml配置文件中关于SpringMVC的配置

<!--configure the setting of springmvcDispatcherServlet and configure the mapping-->
<servlet>
    <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
    <servlet-class>org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet</servlet-class>
    <init-param>
          <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
          <param-value>classpath:springmvc-servlet.xml</param-value>
      </init-param>
      <!-- <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup> -->
</servlet>
 
<servlet-mapping>
    <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
    <url-pattern>/</url-pattern>
</servlet-mapping>

3.在src下添加springmvc-servlet.xml配置文件

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
    xmlns:mvc="http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.1.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc/spring-mvc-4.1.xsd">                    
 
    <!-- scan the package and the sub package -->
    <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC"/>
 
    <!-- don't handle the static resource -->
    <mvc:default-servlet-handler />
 
    <!-- if you use annotation you must configure following setting -->
    <mvc:annotation-driven />
     
    <!-- configure the InternalResourceViewResolver -->
    <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.InternalResourceViewResolver"
            id="internalResourceViewResolver">
        <!-- 前缀 -->
        <property name="prefix" value="/WEB-INF/jsp/" />
        <!-- 后缀 -->
        <property name="suffix" value=".jsp" />
    </bean>
</beans>

4.在WEB-INF文件夹下创建名为jsp的文件夹,用来存放jsp视图。创建一个hello.jsp,在body中添加“Hello World”。

5.建立包及Controller,如下所示

建立包及Controller

6.编写Controller代码

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/mvc")
public class mvcController {
 
    @RequestMapping("/hello")
    public String hello(){        
        return "hello";
    }
}

7.启动服务器,键入 http://localhost:8080/项目名/mvc/hello

二、配置解析

1.Dispatcherservlet

DispatcherServlet是前置控制器,配置在web.xml文件中的。拦截匹配的请求,Servlet拦截匹配规则要自已定义,把拦截下来的请求,依据相应的规则分发到目标Controller来处理,是配置spring MVC的第一步。

2.InternalResourceViewResolver

视图名称解析器

3.以上出现的注解

@Controller 负责注册一个bean 到spring 上下文中

@RequestMapping 注解为控制器指定可以处理哪些 URL 请求

三、SpringMVC常用注解

  • @Controller

  负责注册一个bean 到spring 上下文中

  • @RequestMapping

  注解为控制器指定可以处理哪些 URL 请求

  • @RequestBody

  该注解用于读取Request请求的body部分数据,使用系统默认配置的HttpMessageConverter进行解析,然后把相应的数据绑定到要返回的对象上 ,再把HttpMessageConverter返回的对象数据绑定到 controller中方法的参数上

  • @ResponseBody

  该注解用于将Controller的方法返回的对象,通过适当的HttpMessageConverter转换为指定格式后,写入到Response对象的body数据区

  • @ModelAttribute    

  在方法定义上使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:Spring MVC 在调用目标处理方法前,会先逐个调用在方法级上标注了@ModelAttribute 的方法

  在方法的入参前使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:可以从隐含对象中获取隐含的模型数据中获取对象,再将请求参数 –绑定到对象中,再传入入参将方法入参对象添加到模型中

  • @RequestParam 

  在处理方法入参处使用 @RequestParam 可以把请求参 数传递给请求方法

  • @PathVariable

  绑定 URL 占位符到入参

  • @ExceptionHandler

  注解到方法上,出现异常时会执行该方法

  • @ControllerAdvice

  使一个Contoller成为全局的异常处理类,类中用@ExceptionHandler方法注解的方法可以处理所有Controller发生的异常

四、自动匹配参数

//match automatically
@RequestMapping("/person")
public String toPerson(String name,double age){
    System.out.println(name+" "+age);
    return "hello";
}

五、自动装箱

1.编写一个Person实体类

package test.SpringMVC.model;
 
public class Person {
    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }
    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }
    public int getAge() {
        return age;
    }
    public void setAge(int age) {
        this.age = age;
    }
    private String name;
    private int age;
     
}

2.在Controller里编写方法

//boxing automatically
@RequestMapping("/person1")
public String toPerson(Person p){
    System.out.println(p.getName()+" "+p.getAge());
    return "hello";
}

六、使用InitBinder来处理Date类型的参数

//the parameter was converted in initBinder
@RequestMapping("/date")
public String date(Date date){
    System.out.println(date);
    return "hello";
}
  
//At the time of initialization,convert the type "String" to type "date"
@InitBinder
public void initBinder(ServletRequestDataBinder binder){
    binder.registerCustomEditor(Date.class, new CustomDateEditor(new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd"),
            true));
}

七、向前台传递参数

//pass the parameters to front-end
@RequestMapping("/show")
public String showPerson(Map<String,Object> map){
    Person p =new Person();
    map.put("p", p);
    p.setAge(20);
    p.setName("jayjay");
    return "show";
}
前台可在Request域中取到"p"

八、使用Ajax调用

//pass the parameters to front-end using ajax
@RequestMapping("/getPerson")
@ResponseBody
public String getPerson(String name,PrintWriter pw){
    return "hello,"+name;        
}
@RequestMapping("/name")
@ResponseBody
public String sayHello(){
    return "name";
}

  前台用下面的Jquery代码调用

$(function(){
    $("#btn").click(function(){
       $.post("mvc/getPerson",{name:$("#name").val()},function(data){
            alert(data);
        });
    });
});

九、在Controller中使用redirect方式处理请求

//redirect 
@RequestMapping("/redirect")
public String redirect(){
    return "redirect:hello";
}

十、文件上传

1.需要导入两个jar包

fileupload.jar

2.在SpringMVC配置文件中加入

<!-- upload settings -->
<bean id="multipartResolver"  class="org.springframework.web.multipart.commons.CommonsMultipartResolver">
    <property name="maxUploadSize" value="102400000"></property>
</bean>

3.方法代码

@RequestMapping(value="/upload",method=RequestMethod.POST)
public String upload(HttpServletRequest req) throws Exception{
    MultipartHttpServletRequest mreq = (MultipartHttpServletRequest)req;
    MultipartFile file = mreq.getFile("file");
    String fileName = file.getOriginalFilename();
    SimpleDateFormat sdf = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyyMMddHHmmss");        
    FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(req.getSession().getServletContext().getRealPath("/")+
            "upload/"+sdf.format(new Date())+fileName.substring(fileName.lastIndexOf('.')));
    fos.write(file.getBytes());
    fos.flush();
    fos.close();
     
    return "hello";
}

4.前台form表单

<form action="mvc/upload" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data">
    <input type="file" name="file"><br>
    <input type="submit" value="submit">
</form>

十一、使用@RequestParam注解指定参数的name

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/test")
public class mvcController1 {
    @RequestMapping(value="/param")
    public String testRequestParam(@RequestParam(value="id") Integer id,
            @RequestParam(value="name")String name){
        System.out.println(id+" "+name);
        return "/hello";
    }    
}

十二、RESTFul风格的SringMVC

1.RestController

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/rest")
public class RestController {
    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.GET)
    public String get(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
        System.out.println("get"+id);
        return "/hello";
    }
     
    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.POST)
    public String post(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
        System.out.println("post"+id);
        return "/hello";
    }
     
    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.PUT)
    public String put(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
        System.out.println("put"+id);
        return "/hello";
    }
     
    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id:.+}",method=RequestMethod.DELETE)
    public String delete(@PathVariable("id") String id){
        System.out.println("delete"+id);
        return "/hello";
    }
     
}

2.form表单发送put和delete请求

  在web.xml中配置

<!-- configure the HiddenHttpMethodFilter,convert the post method to put or delete -->
<filter>
    <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>
    <filter-class>org.springframework.web.filter.HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-class>
</filter>
<filter-mapping>
    <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>
    <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
</filter-mapping>

  在前台可以用以下代码产生请求

<form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
    <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="PUT">
    <input type="submit" value="put">
</form>
 
<form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
    <input type="submit" value="post">
</form>
 
<form action="rest/user/1" method="get">
    <input type="submit" value="get">
</form>
 
<form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
    <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="DELETE">
    <input type="submit" value="delete">
</form>

十三、返回json格式的字符串

1.导入以下jar包

jackson.jar

2.方法代码

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/json")
public class jsonController {
     
    @ResponseBody
    @RequestMapping("/user")
    public  User get(){
        User u = new User();
        u.setId(1);
        u.setName("jayjay");
        u.setBirth(new Date());
        return u;
    }
}

十四、异常的处理

1.处理局部异常(Controller内)

@ExceptionHandler
public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){

    ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");
    mv.addObject("exception", ex);
    System.out.println("in testExceptionHandler");
    return mv;
}
    
@RequestMapping("/error")
public String error(){

    int i = 5/0;
    return "hello";
}

2.处理全局异常(所有Controller)

@ControllerAdvice
public class testControllerAdvice {

    @ExceptionHandler
    public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){
        ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");
        mv.addObject("exception", ex);
        System.out.println("in testControllerAdvice");
        return mv;
    }
}

3.另一种处理全局异常的方法

  在SpringMVC配置文件中配置

<!-- configure SimpleMappingExceptionResolver -->
<bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.handler.SimpleMappingExceptionResolver">
    <property name="exceptionMappings">
        <props>
            <prop key="java.lang.ArithmeticException">error</prop>
        </props>
    </property>
</bean>

error是出错页面

十五、设置一个自定义拦截器

1.创建一个MyInterceptor类,并实现HandlerInterceptor接口

public class MyInterceptor implements HandlerInterceptor {
 
    @Override
    public void afterCompletion(HttpServletRequest arg0,
            HttpServletResponse arg1, Object arg2, Exception arg3)
            throws Exception {
        System.out.println("afterCompletion");
    }
 
    @Override
    public void postHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,
            Object arg2, ModelAndView arg3) throws Exception {
        System.out.println("postHandle");
    }
 
    @Override
    public boolean preHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,
            Object arg2) throws Exception {
        System.out.println("preHandle");
        return true;
    }
 
}

2.在SpringMVC的配置文件中配置

	<!-- interceptor setting -->
	<mvc:interceptors>
	    <mvc:interceptor>
	        <mvc:mapping path="/mvc/**"/>
	        <bean class="test.SpringMVC.Interceptor.MyInterceptor"></bean>
	    </mvc:interceptor>        
	</mvc:interceptors>

3.拦截器执行顺序

拦截器执行顺序

十六、表单的验证(使用Hibernate-validate)及国际化

1.导入Hibernate-validate需要的jar包

Hibernate-validate.jar

(未选中不用导入) Hibernate-validate.jar

2.编写实体类User并加上验证注解

public class User {

    public int getId() {
        return id;
    }
    
    public void setId(int id) {
        this.id = id;
    }
    
    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }
    
    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }
    
    public Date getBirth() {
        return birth;
    }
    
    public void setBirth(Date birth) {
        this.birth = birth;
    }
    
    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return "User [id=" + id + ", name=" + name + ", birth=" + birth + "]";
    }  
      
    private int id;
    
    @NotEmpty
    private String name;
 
    @Past
    @DateTimeFormat(pattern="yyyy-MM-dd")
    private Date birth;
}

ps:@Past表示时间必须是一个过去值

3.在jsp中使用SpringMVC的form表单

<form:form action="form/add" method="post" modelAttribute="user">
    id:<form:input path="id"/><form:errors path="id"/><br>
    name:<form:input path="name"/><form:errors path="name"/><br>
    birth:<form:input path="birth"/><form:errors path="birth"/>
    <input type="submit" value="submit">
</form:form>

ps:path对应name

4.Controller中代码

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/form")
public class formController {

    @RequestMapping(value="/add",method=RequestMethod.POST)    
    public String add(@Valid User u,BindingResult br){
        if(br.getErrorCount()>0){            
            return "addUser";
        }
        return "showUser";
    }
     
    @RequestMapping(value="/add",method=RequestMethod.GET)
    public String add(Map<String,Object> map){
        map.put("user",new User());
        return "addUser";
    }
}

ps:

  • 1.因为jsp中使用了modelAttribute属性,所以必须在request域中有一个”user”.

  • 2.@Valid 表示按照在实体上标记的注解验证参数

  • 3.返回到原页面错误信息会回显,表单也会回显

5.错误信息自定义

  在src目录下添加locale.properties

NotEmpty.user.name=name can't not be empty
Past.user.birth=birth should be a past value
DateTimeFormat.user.birth=the format of input is wrong
typeMismatch.user.birth=the format of input is wrong
typeMismatch.user.id=the format of input is wrong

  在SpringMVC配置文件中配置

<!-- configure the locale resource -->
<bean id="messageSource" class="org.springframework.context.support.ResourceBundleMessageSource">
    <property name="basename" value="locale"></property>
</bean>

6.国际化显示

  在src下添加locale_zh_CN.properties

username=账号
password=密码
locale.properties中添加
username=user name
password=password

创建一个locale.jsp

<body>
  <fmt:message key="username"></fmt:message>
  <fmt:message key="password"></fmt:message>
</body>

  在SpringMVC中配置

<!-- make the jsp page can be visited -->
<mvc:view-controller path="/locale" view-name="locale"/>

让locale.jsp在WEB-INF下也能直接访问

最后,访问locale.jsp,切换浏览器语言,能看到账号和密码的语言也切换了

十七、压轴大戏–整合SpringIOC和SpringMVC

1.创建一个test.SpringMVC.integrate的包用来演示整合,并创建各类

IOC整合

2.User实体类

public class User {

    public int getId() {
        return id;
    }
    
    public void setId(int id) {
        this.id = id;
    }
    
    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }
    
    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }
    
    public Date getBirth() {
        return birth;
    }
    
    public void setBirth(Date birth) {
        this.birth = birth;
    }
    
    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return "User [id=" + id + ", name=" + name + ", birth=" + birth + "]";
    }  
      
    private int id;
    @NotEmpty
    private String name;
 
    @Past
    @DateTimeFormat(pattern="yyyy-MM-dd")
    private Date birth;
}

3.UserService类

@Component
public class UserService {

    public UserService(){
        System.out.println("UserService Constructor...\n\n\n\n\n\n");
    }
     
    public void save(){
        System.out.println("save");
    }
}

4.UserController

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/integrate")
public class UserController {

    @Autowired
    private UserService userService;
     
    @RequestMapping("/user")
    public String saveUser(@RequestBody @ModelAttribute User u){
        System.out.println(u);
        userService.save();
        return "hello";
    }
}

5.Spring配置文件

  在src目录下创建SpringIOC的配置文件applicationContext.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans  
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd 
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/util 
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/util/spring-util-4.0.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd
        "
        xmlns:util="http://www.springframework.org/schema/util"
        xmlns:p="http://www.springframework.org/schema/p"
        xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"   
        >
    <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC.integrate">
        <context:exclude-filter type="annotation"
            expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Controller"/>
        <context:exclude-filter type="annotation"
            expression="org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice"/>        
    </context:component-scan>
     
</beans>

  在Web.xml中添加配置

<!-- configure the springIOC -->
<listener>
    <listener-class>org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener</listener-class>
</listener>
<context-param>  
  <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>  
  <param-value>classpath:applicationContext.xml</param-value>
</context-param>

  6.在SpringMVC中进行一些配置,防止SpringMVC和SpringIOC对同一个对象的管理重合

<!-- scan the package and the sub package -->
    <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC.integrate">
        <context:include-filter type="annotation"
            expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Controller"/>
        <context:include-filter type="annotation"
            expression="org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice"/>
    </context:component-scan>

十八、SpringMVC详细运行流程图

SpringMVC详细运行流程图

十九、SpringMVC与struts2的区别

  • 1、springmvc基于方法开发的,struts2基于类开发的。springmvc将url和controller里的方法映射。映射成功后springmvc生成一个Handler对象,对象中只包括了一个method。方法执行结束,形参数据销毁。springmvc的controller开发类似web service开发。

  • 2、springmvc可以进行单例开发,并且建议使用单例开发,struts2通过类的成员变量接收参数,无法使用单例,只能使用多例。

  • 3、经过实际测试,struts2速度慢,在于使用struts标签,如果使用struts建议使用jstl。


版权声明:本文由 在 2016年01月12日发表。本文采用CC BY-NC-SA 4.0许可协议,非商业转载请注明出处,不得用于商业目的。
文章题目及链接:《史上最全最强SpringMVC详细示例实战教程》




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